NL EN. More about Grounded theory Qualitative research Social sciences Statistical methods. Faculty library economics and business administration Open print view. Mon 16 Sep Tue 17 Sep Wed 18 Sep Thu 19 Sep Fri 20 Sep Sat 21 Sep closed Sun 22 Sep closed More opening hours. ISBN: pbk. Author: Corbin, Juliet M. Description: Xviii, pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: Inspiration and background -- Theoretical foundations -- Practical considerations for getting started -- Prelude to analysis -- Strategies for qualitative data analysis -- Memos and diagrams -- Theoretical sampling -- Context -- Process -- Techniques for achieving theoretical integration -- The use of computer programs in qualitative data analysis -- Open coding: identifying concepts -- Developing concepts in terms of their properties and dimensions -- Analyzing data for context -- Bringing process into the analysis -- Integrating categories -- Writing theses, monographs, and dissertations, and giving talks -- About your research -- Criteria for evaluation -- Student questions and answers.
Highly accessible in their approach, authors Juliet Corbin and Anselm Strauss late of the University of San Francisco and co-creator of grounded theory provide a step-by-step guide to the research act, from the formation of the research question through several approaches to coding and analysis, to reporting on the research. Significantly revised and full of definitions and illustrative examples, this highly accessible book concludes with chapters that present criteria for evaluating a study, as well as responses to common questions posed by students of qualitative research.
Passar bra ihop. Ladda ned. Recensioner i media. Those properties and dimensions are not always spelled out in our memos but they are there in our words. Summary of Important Points This chapter demonstrates early coding. The researcher began by breaking the data down into manageable pieces, reflecting upon that data in memos, and conceptualizing what she thought the data were indicating.
To arrive at an understanding of what the data were stating, there was a lot of brainstorming going on with questions asked about the data, comparisons made, and a lot of reflective thought. Some of the memos expanded upon the concepts by including some of the details or subconcepts contained in the piece of data. Also, a couple of possible themes or categories were delineated, though at this point the categories remain unverified and undeveloped.
Almost of all the analysis in this chapter provided direction for the next set of data collection. In the next chapter, I will pick up with the analysis where I left off, building upon previous analysis using the next data set. Page 49 of 50 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. Make use of the possibility to link codes to your memos, if your memos relate to any existing codes. Come up with some concepts and write memos that explain and expand upon those concepts.
When finished coding, switch all colors on and compare the coding done by the different members of your group. Discuss the differences of the coding. Note 1. The pronoun I, rather than we, will be used in the following five chapters because the analysis was done by Corbin, who takes full responsibility for it. It is a process of fitting data together, of making the invisible obvious, of linking and attributing consequences to antecedents.
It is a process of conjecture and verification, of correction and modification, of suggestion and defense. Though this is not specifically addressed in this chapter, note that when two concepts are discussed in the same memo I am using what was called in previous editions of this book axial coding. Comparative Analysis: Comparing incident against incident for similarities and differences. Incidents that are found to be conceptually similar to previously coded incidents are given the same conceptual label and put under the same code.
Each new incident that is coded under a code adds to the general properties and dimensions of that code, elaborating it and bringing in variation. Open Coding: Breaking data apart and delineating concepts to stand for blocks of raw data.
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At the same time, one is qualifying those concepts in terms of their properties and dimensions. Theoretical Sampling: Data collection based on concepts that appear to be relevant to the evolving story line. After finishing the draft of Chapter 8, I went into the kitchen to prepare dinner. Somewhere between preparing the main dish and the salad I had a sudden insight which often happens when one has spent the day immersed in data analysis.
I went back to my computer and wrote the following memo. After stepping away from the data it became clear to me that, though related, the two concepts are analytically different. It is very subjective. It is less subjective in the sense that it has to do with the purpose of war, the actual events that happen in the war zone and back in the home country in relation to the war. It also includes the norms of war and how the realities of war differ from civilian norms. It also has to do with the whole military system that is Page 4 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed.
It too becomes part of the context but is the more personal level of the conditional matrix. Even before sitting down to look at the next set of data I revised and refined my thinking a little. Insights can happen at any time and in any place, so the researcher must always be prepared to jot down those ideas before they are lost. Revising and re- revising the emerging analytic [p. Interpretations are not set in stone but are subject to revision as data accumulates.
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In fact, new insights and subsequent changes in the analytic scheme often occur right up to the end of the study. Seeing data differently later in a study does not indicate that earlier analysis was wrong. It only points out that understandings evolve and that subtleties, previously overlooked, take on meaning the more one works with data. In this chapter, I will continue to build upon the data analysis started in Chapter 8. The question that is directing data collection in this phase of analysis is one that was based on analysis of the previous interview and determined by me, the analyst, to be of major relevance to the evolving storyline.
The question directing this phase of the analysis is this: In what ways was the Vietnam War experience different for combatants versus noncombatants? The researcher is interested in knowing in what ways, and why, the war experience was similar or different between combatants and noncombatants. Data collection and analysis will proceed as follows. I will obtain data from combatants and compare that data to previous data from Participant 1, a noncombatant. Comparisons will be made at the concept level.
To be more specific, data will again be broken down into manageable chunks. Each chunk of data will be examined closely. If a chunk of the new data is conceptually the same as data from the previous interview, then it will be coded using the same conceptual name, but this time I'll be asking about what else is being learned about this concept that will further extend understanding of what it is like to go to war.
For example, if an incident in the second interview is coded Page 5 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. That is, what does he tell me about himself that might be the same or different from our first respondent? Anything new he tells me will be added to the list of properties and dimensions. Also, the researcher will be looking for new concepts that might not have been in the previous data, adding them to the list of codes. In addition to making comparisons along conceptual lines, I will continue to ask theoretically based questions that will lead to further data collection theoretical sampling.
Research is a continuous process of data collection, followed by analysis and memo writing, leading to questions, that lead to more data collection, and so on. In this approach, the original question s is modified over and over again in light of what is being discovered during the analysis. Focusing on this concept does not mean that other concepts such as the self and images of war are being ignored.
They are still important categories. Before I began analysis of the first interview, I had only a general and very open-ended question. I let my interpretation of the data from that first interview guide me on where to go next. Allowing the data to guide you is one way of working with data, and perhaps too open for some researchers.
Some researchers prefer to stay much closer to their original question, though I would venture to say that more experienced researchers are Page 6 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. But then more experienced researchers and less likely to have to answer to committee members and more willing to trust their intuition about what is important. Notice, however, that I am staying with my target population, Vietnam veterans, and I still want to know what going to war was like for them. Axial Coding In previous editions of this book there was mention of something called axial coding.
But as you probably noticed from the memos in Chapter 8, open coding and axial coding go hand in hand. As analysts work with data, their minds automatically make connections because, after all, the connections come from the data. As I link categories, I am also elaborating them. The pyramid represents the entire structure, but blocks, and how they are arranged are the components that make it what it is. What the reader will notice in this chapter is that very often the memo titles which are essentially codes contain two or more concepts with the memo spelling out the links between the concepts.
Analytic Strategies I want to remind readers that the analytic strategies of asking questions and making comparisons continue to be major analytic strategies for elaborating the analysis. The first participant tells us that he used those strategies essentially to help him survive the war experience and handle the moral conflicts that it the war aroused in him. Then, I could ask, do other soldiers use these strategies for the same reasons or different reasons? Thinking through comparative situations makes the analyst more sensitive in the sense that it alerts him or her to what to look for in data.
Something about the Interviews Used in this Chapter The interviews used in this chapter are somewhat different from the one that was used in Chapter 8. Doing the interview in this manner was not a matter of choice. I prefer doing unstructured interviews. But doing unstructured interviews proved to be impossible in this case. How I acquired the additional interview material is interesting.
Page 8 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. I decided to go to the Internet to see if I could make contact with Vietnam veterans and perhaps find some potential research participants. I found a chat line for Vietnam War participants and made a request for research participants. There was only one response. At first I was disappointed that persons didn't jump at the opportunity to participate in this book.
In fact, I received a very cold shoulder to my request. The one Internet person who agreed to be interviewed for this study, Participant 2, said he would be willing to answer questions about his experience as part of his desire to educate others about the Vietnam War. In fact, he often speaks to groups about the war. Participant 2's responses to questions are brief but very honest and powerful.
Additionally, I want to assure my readers that I did take measures to maintain ethical standards when conducting interviews via the Internet. The site is a closed one and the participants had to contact me. I could leave a message at the site but I could not chat with anyone. For the two responders, I did fully disclose the reason for the interviews and the use to which the materials would be put. I even sent the participants a copy of the chapter in which the materials were used so that they could respond and raise any objections.
There are two parts to the interview with Participant 2. Both parts of the interview can be found in Appendix C. I came from an average Southern family in X, my father being a schoolteacher, coach, and athletic director. My mother was a homemaker and I had one sister nineteen months younger than me. I wasn't married or engaged. My father was a World War II combat veteran [p.
My family was supportive of my choices, not necessarily of the war in Vietnam. In this interview, we know that the biographical information was given in response to a direct question posed by the researcher. Participant 2 came to the war from a middle-class, close, and supportive family. His dad also served in the military during World War II. The fact that both our participants came from middleclass, intact families is quite interesting because one often hears that the men who served in Vietnam were mainly minorities or from low-income families.
Though there may have been a disproportionate number of men and women in Vietnam from minority or low-income backgrounds, obviously not everyone fits that profile. What is different between the two men is that Participant 1 had training as a nurse, therefore was not likely to become a combatant. He didn't volunteer to become a marine. Computers can be used to keep a running list of concepts and a log of memos. Page 10 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. In that sense, computers are an excellent analytic tool and can be added to the other analytic tools we have already identified.
But computers don't do the thinking needed to move a study along. Only a person can do that.
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That is why the human element is such an important part of doing qualitative research. Computer programs are exciting, and they add another dimension, but analysts should not be fooled into thinking that if they use a computer program they can omit the thinking and memo writing. With these few words of wisdom behind me, I want to explain where I am going with the analysis. The idea was to check out my hunch that the description of the experience would be quite different. The question that remains when examining these data is determining what made a difference in the experience, and could this be related to the fact that one was a combatant and the other a noncombatant?
I did not serve with any draftees in Vietnam. From a war standpoint, this is important because at the time he volunteered, the only U. Their job was to train and support the South Vietnamese army. This tells us that the participant didn't join the Marines expressly for the purpose of going to Vietnam. It was by chance that he ended up in Vietnam. We have some contrast here from our first respondent.
Participant 1 volunteered for the Army Nurse Corps to stay one step ahead of the draft. The U. Participant 2, on the other hand, went to Vietnam because he was already a Marine and it just so happened that the war was escalating. Now we get to the heart of the matter. Memo 4 June 20, The Enemy, the War Experience, and the Culture of this War The Viet Cong were a very well-trained and disciplined military force who gained footholes in local villages by terror, killing, and torture. These relationships will be checked out against incoming data and accepted, modified, or discarded with further analysis.
In the next memo, we are also crosscutting concepts. It is equally [p. I could kill without hesitation as that was my job and I was trained to do just that. It doesn't take long for one to get into the groove seeing friends wounded and killed. The killing becomes a habit and self-defense as time goes on and you survive.
Marines fight for other marines and the corps, not necessarily the cause. There were a few of us that did not want to be there but no one wants to be in a life or death situation of combat if they have a choice. The problem is that young men join the military for a variety of reasons, some ideological and some for the sake of having an adventure, to get a skill or training, or to get away from home.
They have no idea when they set off what being in war entails. When the reality of war hits, it must be a real shocker to a young man who lived a middle-class life where people are basically nice to each other. Page 15 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. The right of free speech, right to protest and right to live free. These groups will be the downfall of the United States, as we know it.
The anti-war movement did nothing but gain a dishonorable peace and disrespect 58, Americans who paid the ultimate price for the rights of its citizens. The GI's of the Vietnam War were treated like traitors to the student and activist anti-war movement of that era. That should never again happen to an American GI. As a collective society, we also failed our GI's during and after the Vietnam War.
I can see myself as a person intruding into this analysis but I can't help it. It's my reaction to this data. Protestors saw a war, a war they felt was morally wrong.
They failed to distinguish the war from the soldiers who were forced into fighting it by their government and the society that sanctioned the government. These two concepts, war and soldiers, though they go together, are very different. Page 16 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. We have certain freedoms because there are men and women who are willing to serve in the military in order to protect and defend those freedoms.
But protestors use that freedom, bought at the price of soldiers' lives, to attack the very soldiers who are out there in the battle zones defending the protesters's right to free speech. It's all so ironic. Of course, there are the true pacifists, those who believe that all wars are wrong regardless of the circumstances. But these persons I suspect are relatively few in number and even they would probably be willing to serve in some capacity if their country were attacked. Most Americans believe that having some sort of military is important for defense against aggression.
But having a military and having a war are two different things. It wasn't the military that started the war. It was the elected officials. Where [p. Isaacs makes a good point. There were parades and recognition for their sacrifices. The effect of this recognition was a sort of collective sharing of guilt for any atrocities that might have occurred as a result of war. The soldiers who served in the Vietnam War didn't receive recognition for their valor when they came home, rather they were held responsible for the war by persons who had never been to war and thus had little understanding of the conditions of war.
Fifty-eight thousand men were killed. It took years before their sacrifice was recognized in a Vietnam War Memorial. Some carry the burdens easier than others. Outwardly anyway. Here our respondent clearly describes it for us. The killing and carnage place a burden on combat veterans that they carry for life. It is interesting that some ex-soldiers have been able to come to terms with the war experience and the many losses they suffered.
At that time we only had advisors in Vietnam. Myself as well as my entire unit did not join the [p. Myself, and the tens of thousands of others were in the same boat when the leaders of this country who were elected by the people took us into the Vietnam cause. I'm a true American patriot and believe that those who choose to serve or are required to serve should do just that in an honorable way. Those who choose to attack us for our service, those who ran away to other countries, are not the foundation this country was built on. These attitudes carry to this day with many and never should have been tolerated or excused by the American people.
The GIs of all those eras are no different in their service to the United States. Just the cause. This participant, and many like him, joined the military for ideological reasons. I don't know how many of those five years were spent in Vietnam. The usual tour of duty in Vietnam, I believe, was thirteen months. Yes, mistakes were made in the war and innocent civilians were killed. But most soldiers were honorable men, as he states, doing their duty and many were maimed or were killed.
For Participant 2, the young men who fled the country rather than go to war were the dishonorable ones, because they fled their country in the time of war. President Carter later pardoned them. The pardon was another blow to the Veterans. I think another reason why Vietnam is so difficult to talk about is the sort of collective guilt that society feels for engaging in the Vietnam War.
Page 19 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. Along with that burden is an unresolved anger. As far as he is concerned, in accepting the negotiated settlement, America turned its back on the 58, that lost their lives and approximately , that were wounded. I feel the pain of these men. I feel very inadequate at conveying the depth of feeling contained in the words above.
I know that as a researcher I have a very deep responsibility to those who trust me with their stories to present those stories accurately and fairly. It is their side of the story that I'm trying to capture in this study. To really bring out the complexity of their experience, it must be placed in the context of everything else that was going on at the time, including the peace marches. Methodological Note Based upon analysis of Participant 2's statements, I had more questions for him.
I present the questions next. Page 20 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. I think in some way you have, but wonder if you might say more. Because of that moral conflict, there were times in Vietnam that my friend had pangs of conscience about what he was seeing and doing. In fact, he had never talked about the war with anyone during or after the war, up until the time of the interview. He just blended into the college campus when he returned home, avoiding all antiwar activities and discussions on campus.
Did any of that haunt you then or afterwards and how did you deal with it? P: It has haunted me everyday of my life. Not a day passes that I don't remember something about that era.
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I never mentioned or talked about Vietnam to anyone including my wife of thirty-seven years until the late 90s. These are pretty powerful words. This participant makes it very clear that one does not kill and watch one's fellow soldiers be killed and then walk away from the experience unscathed.
There is pain, remorse, regret, and terrible memories that one lives with. But I also wonder if part of the reason for not talking about one's experiences in Vietnam is the fear that others won't understand and therefore make judgment on your actions. How do you explain what you went through, the visions that haunt you, the things you had to do, Page 21 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. To carry that experience for so many years, and not be able to let go, really points to the depth of the experience and its lingering effects.
The pain is almost paralyzing in the sense that it is difficult to talk about, even with those whom one holds most dear. Memo 12 June 20, Survival: A Matter of Chance R: I guess what I'm getting at is that you say that you thought of it [the war] as a survival experience, but what were the strategies that enabled you to survive? P: Surviving the war was a matter of pure luck. You happened not to be in the wrong place at the right time. That was merely luck. You could not survive the war by being careful, a coward, or trying to stay in the rear with the gear. I know guys who served an entire combat tour without even a briar scratch and then I knew others who were there less than thirty days and [were] nearly blown in half.
According to my readings, the enemy often hid in villages and placed mines and booby traps along the paths that they knew marines would pass. Though villagers often passed along these same paths, they were not injured indicating that they probably knew where the mines were placed Anderson, When a soldier was wounded, the enemy used him as bait because they knew that a marine would never leave another marine, dead or wounded, behind Waugh, The enemy hid snipers in trees and it was difficult to see them because Page 22 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed.
It makes sense from a military standpoint. Unfortunately, there were consequences of the military strategies to the innocent villagers who were caught in the war. P: Death and mutilation is all around you in war and it becomes a matter of acceptance and habit. You mentally try to remove yourself from all the carnage and put our mind in another place and another time.
Your mind spends hours upon hours at home in a warm, dry, clean, safe bed with family and loved ones. It's my opinion that marines were better trained than some of the other services to deal with the carnage. Not better GIs just better trained and much closer to each other. I think it is interesting that this participant tells us something very similar to what Participant 1 told us. He daydreamed about what he would do when he got out of the military. This participant also projected himself at home, thinking about returning to his safe warm bed and to family.
This quote does tell me that both combatants and noncombatants had to use psychological survival strategies to keep themselves going. P: I was able to mentally remove myself from the carnage. I always felt if I dwelled on it and allowed it to consume me I would be the next one hit. This little quote says it all, verifying the above hypothesis about the role of psychological strategies. One must mentally remove oneself from what is going on. After going through such a profound experience, how, when, or can healing even take place?
To what degree does it occur? And, if healing doesn't happen, then what happens? Are the pain, loss, and memories brought out as anger, rage, and depression? This is an interesting series of questions. I need to follow-up on this question in my next round of data collection. P: Since Nam and now I put it completely out of my mind with friends, family and loved ones. I avoided drinking completely as booze would bring on the most vivid mental Page 25 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed.
I would not be talking about it today unless a great friend of mine through boot camp and Nam found me after forty years and all the memories flooded back into my mind. Talking with a brother you served with is easy but not the general public. This guy was a machine gunner in my weapons platoon and now we see each other regularly, which allows us to dump all the memories on each other, which is like taking a drug.
I've been so lucky to have a woman in my life who never pushed the issue, never asked questions, held me quietly when the nightmares came and gave me her unyielding support. Alcohol lets down those defenses and the anger, rage, and depression come flooding through. Other Vets have turned to alcohol to blot out memories. Though not expressed directly by Participant 1, I couldn't help but feel that he too had many unresolved issues, though certainly not to the same degree as Participant 2.
Participant 2 doesn't seem to have any good memories. I wonder what is it about the war experience that creates such intense feelings? In the memoirs written by Vietnam veterans that I've been reading, there is a lot of rage felt towards the enemy because of the ferocity of the fighting and their perceived viciousness. There is rage at seeing death and mutilation in your buddies and a strong desire to get revenge Waugh, The rage expressed here also seems to be at the peace marchers, who are felt by many Veterans to have brought the U.
It seems amazing that after all these years memories are still so vivid and the nightmares so real. Civilians go on with their lives after a war but for the GIs it seems that their lives are affected forever. It is good that this individual has gained some relief through talking Page 26 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. The name popped into my head in , thirty-one years after Nam. Several dozen Nam vets use to gather at a Web site put up by a lady and Vietnam vet supporter who was never associated with a Veteran or Vietnam in any way. It became too much for her to deal with over the years so I put [up] a chat room and Web site to honor my unit and maintain contact with many Vietnam veterans I've met over the years.
Mostly marine combat vets but we have a few others from other services including the Air Force, Army, and Navy who join us weekly. We're a very tight knit group and stay to ourselves for the most part. During our gatherings online we try to avoid the ghost of Vietnam.
Therefore the name …. The group [p. One can see why they want the ghosts to stay buried. The dead are always with them. Page 27 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. P: The contact that I had with the enemy was with the dead or dying. I watched several last breaths and can see each one today as I did then. There were no differences in the Vietnamese friend or foe as far as the people were concerned. They were of a different culture and religion but human. I never view friend or foe as nonhuman or villains. These words are so powerful.
To think that all these years later he can still visualize the sight of dead and dying enemy, as well as the death of friends. Friends, enemies, they are the same when injured or dead. They bleed, have pain, suffer and they too are afraid of death. Many Vietnamese friends and foes were lost in this war, a fact that is important to remember. You never knew what they were from one day to the next.
Under the right pressure of being killed or tortured, your friend on Monday was your foe on Tuesday. They were still human, just the enemy. You depended on your GIs who came from the same land as you. To this participant, the enemy is someone you can't trust and have to fight in war. The only persons you could trust were your fellow soldiers. Memo 20 June 20, Meaning of War R: Would you say that the war hardened you, made you more sensitive and feeling, disillusioned you about war?
P: Unfortunately war has become a necessary evil of the world, as there are cultures that want to murder us, each and everyone.
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I'm not against war under the right circumstances and Vietnam for sure did not make me a pacifist. I viewed myself as hard nosed before Vietnam, owned my first gun when I was seven. Hunted alone before I was nine. Things that our parents would go to jail for today. Not then. Vietnam showed me how many Americans really are in their attitudes about God and country. I learned Page 29 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. Whatever one wants to call [it] these people need to give this old GI a wide berth in life. If you want to brand that hardened, yes, I'm hardened.
It's my feeling [that] the elected leaders of this country should put GIs in harms way only as a last resort. World War II was a last resort. I'll have to say I'm not sure about Vietnam, Korea or Iraq. The average American does not have the information at hand as our elected leaders have to make the determination of war. History will prove whether these other wars made a difference in the world or the well being of the USA.
I wish I would be here for those answers. I detest seeing humans abused, tortured and killed now and before Vietnam. I think we are blessed as a people, which puts us in a mindset to help others. Is this a justification of war? I'm not sure and don't have all the answers. There is a lot in this long quote and it really gets at what this man struggles with to this day. Is war ever justified? This, of course, is an issue that has been debated probably since man began. He makes a distinction between World War II in which there was an aggressor that threatened a continent and the wars in Vietnam and Iraq.
In terms of the later, he questions the meaning of those wars and leaves it to history to tell us if they made a difference. This man has not become disillusioned about his country or war in the way that Participant 1 has. The betrayal that this man feels is not betrayal by country, but a disillusionment with the civilians who criticized those men and women who were willing to fight for the ideals that Americans hold sacred.
Page 30 of 48 Basics of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. No way can I explain how seeing those 58, names, many being GIs I served with as well as friends from high school and college, affect me. I will say I never want that feeling again. There is a profound sense of grief upon seeing the names on the wall because each name represents a real person. Going to the memorial was difficult for Participant 1 also. Corbin, in closing I just want to warn you if you don't already know, asking these questions of some Vietnam vets will bring on aggressive responses and sometimes verbal attacks including guys who patronize my Web site, I would say most of them as a matter of fact.
I choose and never have edited the message board and the guys know it. We offered our lives for freedom of speech as well as all other GIs who have served. Who am I to censor free speech? I've tried to accommodate teachers and students like yourself over the year with basic input to enable those who were not involved to the views of many, especially the views of veterans in a feeble attempt to create an understanding of their views. Just don't take it personally, if some tell you to take a hike. Talking about the experience revives old memories and brings out the unresolved anger.
But I still don't understand, why so much rage so long after the war?