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Roman Statues and Plaques. Plaster Piggy Banks to Paint in all shapes and styles. Sports Statues for every athlete. Football, Baseball, Basketball, Bodybuilding Statues and more. Some are suitable as trophies. These stations are grouped by function. We see Navigation crew sitting near other navigation crew, weapons officers near other combat functions, communications near the center, and engineering given a special area up top.

Large display boards and the central Dradis Console provide information to the entire crew of the CIC. The CIC is dealing with a lot of information from all over the ship and trying to relate it to the lead officers who are making decisions. There is a lot of activity related to this information overload, but the design of the CIC has organized it into a reasonably effective flow.

Teams communicate with each other, then that decision flows forward to lead officers, who relate it to Admiral Adama. Orders flow in the opposite direction. Admiral Adama can very quickly shout out an order from the center of the CIC and have his lead officers hear it all around him. It can also act as a failsafe: other officers can also hear the same order and act as a confirmation step. From there, the officers can organize their teams to distribute more detailed orders to the entire ship.

Large screens show information that the entire CIC needs to know, while smaller screens display information for specific crew or groups. Overall, the stadium-like construction of the CIC works well for the low tech approach that the Galactica takes after. Without introducing automation and intelligent computer networks onto the bridge, there is little that could be done to improve the workflow.

Boat-sized vessels cannot afford the volume needed for a full-sized spherical control center. Instead, they use a reduced four-person design. This smaller size allows a boat to still benefit from the concept of the astronomical display. The ship's captain is in the center. Other functions, such as a communication and astronavigation, are supervised from small work stations located just outside the bridge itself.

The chief gunner can access all of the weapon controls from the bridge. Normally, the bridge's gunnery station is used solely to prioritize targets and for overall situational awareness. Actual aiming of weapons is typicaly conducted through the local fire control systems near the weapons themselves. Engineering interfaces with the ship's computer to run programs, do maintenance reviews and supervise damage control. In combat, the chief engineer may attempt various workaround repairs without leaving the bridge.

He may also directs the damage control parties, which are led by the watch officers. The ship's pilot has full control of the vessel from the navigation and helm station. Constant coordination with gunnery is important, as the ship's maneuvers will move its firing arcs around.

New courses may be plotted onto the spherical display for review by the captain prior to them being initiated. Various data feeds are projected on the datascreen that form the walls and ceiling. In combat, the system functions as a giant headup display, including target identification, range and a symbol showing the object's relative velocity. Each individual station has independent displays for more detailed information. The bridge of the Corsair-class vessels is probably the largest living space aboard the vessel.

It is built around the standard Jovian "open space" spherical layout, with crew stations far from one another. In many ways, it would be better to refer to it as the ship's cockpit, since it shares many characteristics with interceptor and exo-armor cockpits. The Corsair's bridge is covered with a bubble-like canopy, a sophisticated projection system similar to the ones used on most ships' bridges; it can project not only a reconstructed view from any sensor cluster in any wavelength, but it can also overlay tactical information such as trajectories and IFF tags.

Each crew station is equipped with an ergonomic padded seat surrounded by readout panels that can be reprogrammed to fulfill the functions of any of the bridge's posts. The seat features attachment points for a sturdy padded harness for use during combat and alert situations a thin seat belt is used otherwise to improve comfort.

A panel in the base of the seat contains connectors for a space suit air hose and power leads, greatly extending the endurance of said suit. The bridge of the Shan-Yu battlecruiser is a spherical chamber which takes up the same volume as the Strategic Operations Center. It has fewer stations than the SOC, and a much more delicate-seeming framework around the seats the equipment is just as structurally sound as the ones used by other nations, but is more aesthetically pleasing.

The captain sits right in the middle of the room in a gimbaled seat that can swivel to face any direction in the room and its wall monitors. The rest of the crew stations are scattered around, above and below the captain's seat, and are all linked to a walkway and ladders that ring the bridge. Each crew station is surrounded by monitors, facing both inward and outward, that complement the "big picture" presented on the main spherical viewscreen.

When fully active, the bridge is a riot of multimedia displays that a good captain must be able to interpret and analyze at a glance.

The Science and Technology Behind Our Next Theater of Conflict

It occupies a large spherical volume in the center of one of the main hulls, exactly in the same location as the bridge but within the opposite hull. At all times, operators move between stations, compiling intelligence and battle reports with the help of the onboard computers to present up-to-date tactical advice to the officers in charge. A number of heavy-duty walkways and liftlines crisscross the room to handle foot traffic, which is much increased in this room compared to the bridge.

Computer terminals and monitors line the wall, along with compact and space-saving seating for a large number of operatives. The wall monitors are set to show external views of the ship or other important data. These partial floors are accessible via ladders or zero-gee floating, and consist primarily of walkways around the rim and several extra workstations and monitoring panels.

A large chair sits on a raised dais at the back of the room. It is meant for use by the Strategic Operations Coordinator, who is usually a flag officer. This is the room where all the data gathered by the Huang-ti's sensors is collated, inspected, and evaluated by the onboard specialists. The inner room is spherical; since the corresponding space in the other main hull is square-edged, the Analysis Room is actually a sphere positioned within a rectangular volume. The space outside the crew sphere is taken up by computers and data storage equipment which is accessible via access panels in the walls.

A tiny bathroom and a snack bin are located right outside the main door for convenience during long shifts. The room has many chairs along the walls, but the central space is clear of permanent furniture. The walls are covered in monitors; threat boards and other large displays can unfold from the walls, allowing even more data display space. In its fully "open" state, the whole room is packed solid with display devices. Many crew, however, prefer to use virtual reality headsets and use the central space as a virtual environment.

Up to a dozen people can work in this room in total comfort as far as elbow room goes, at least. This room is not set up for ship control functions; it is a think tank, not much else. Operations rooms are centered around some sort of tactical display, the aforementioned Big Board. In World War 2, you had huge tables with models of soldiers, tanks and aircraft, being moved about by military women using croupier sticks. You can see this in almost any movie about the Battle of Britain, depictions of the famous Battle of Britain Bunker.

Another classic item is the grease-pencil annotated polar plot on an edge-lighted transparent plotting board. Still later a Radar or Sonar cathode ray tube with the sweeping line became popular. Those are still used with air-traffic controllers, with aircraft annotation and everything. Then came NASA mission control and quite a few James Bond villains who were fond of video walls composed of multiple monitors displaying all kinds of different data. The Starship Enterprise had a classic Big Board display in the front.

Finally, science fiction has postulated that futuristic combat spacecraft will have some species of holographic display generally spherical showing the location and vector of all friendly and hostile spacecraft in the battle. The display will probably have additional information, see Long Scan. These displays use the Polar coordinate system.

This is traditionally used with sea-going naval vessels. This means the fact that polar coordinates are two-dimensional does not matter since sea-going ships generally do not use the third dimension under normal operations notable exceptions being a ship sinking, a ship blown out of the water, or a submarine. A spacecraft would use a spherical coordinate system. At periodic intervals other ships are plotted with grease pencil on the display, using each ship's range and bearing as reported by your radar or sonar.

Note that if the other ship is stationary but the CIC ship is moving, the plot of the other ship will show it moving in the opposite direction. This is just the normal consequence of the CIC ship always being in the center. You want it in the center because that makes the polar plot just perfect for telling the gunnery crew which direction to fire their turrets, or where the antisubmarine station should lob a depth charge.

The main drawback to the polar plot with its static grid printed on the Plexiglas is that it uses true north as zero degrees. In the CIC room, the officer in charge of updating the sheet of Plexiglas takes the readings and draws the current locations of all the ships of interest. Now, say that one of the ships of interest is an enemy submarine, and the CIC ship wants to lob a pattern of depth charges bracketing it. The officer of the deck draws the pattern, then uses the Plexiglas grid to determine each charge's range and bearing. This is two cases of an extra step being added to the process, with the process time going up with the number of ships of interest.

Time is of the essence. In addition, these are two places where mistakes in calculation can creep in. Wouldn't it be nice these steps could be avoided all together? The steps can be avoided by just using CIC orientation at all steps. Problem is that this means the polar grid would have to be capable of rotation and movement on the Plexiglas. Which can't be done since the grid is painted on.

How can we make it move? This was a large table with a glass top and a mobile projector below called a "bug". Before battle you would attach a large piece of tracing paper over the glass top. The bug would be zeroed in at the center of the table. When you turned on the NC-2, the bug would project an image of a polar grid upward.

With the lights in the room dimmed, the grid could be seen through the tracing paper. Once on, the NC-2 would move and rotate the bug and thus the polar grid using inputs from the ships gyro compass and underwater speed log. With this system, the CIC ship was not always at the center of the table, it moved around as the ship moved. Just what we wanted! Periodically you would mark on the tracing paper the center of the polar grid's current location. So the paper would have a record of how the CIC ship moved through the area. Ships of interest you were tracking would be plotted on the current location and orientation of the polar grid, using range and bearing as reported from radar or sonar.

Only the bearings would be from the ship's nose, not true north. So the radar crew could just give you the radar bearings straight, no conversion required. And when a fire order was needed, the officer of the deck could measure the bearings directly using the bug's grid.

This would automatically be oriented to the CIC ship's nose, no conversion required. The anti-sub crew thought the NC-2 was the greatest thing since sliced bread. They considered it the third-most valuable piece of equipment on the entire ship. The only items more valuable were the sonar and the depth charges. Naturally nowadays such plotting is done on computer and displayed on a computer monitor.

Electromechanical solutions like the NC-2 are not needed. Unless your computer network has been hacked by Cylons or fried by an EMP or something. Tactics will follow. The four small holoprojection units around the table came alive, each one constructing a three-dimensional map of the Galaxy, burning with the bright pinpoints of stars. The map rotated until one seemed to be looking straight "down" through the Galactic disk, and the focus tightened on the Sagittarius Arm—the irregular spiral-arm structure, thirty thousand light-years long and half as wide, that the Federation, the Romulans and the Klingons all shared.

From this perspective, the Sag Arm at least to Jim looked rather like the North American continent; though it was North America missing most of Canada, and the United States as far west as the Rockies and as far south as Oklahoma. Sol sat on the shore of that great starry lacuna, about where Oklahoma City would have been.

The bright "continent" swelled in the map-cube, till the whole cubic was full of the area that would have been southwestern North America, Mexico and the Californias. There was very little regularity about their boundaries with one another, except for one abnormally smooth curvature, almost a section of an egg shape, where the blue space nested with and partly surrounded the gold. You can see that there are some problems in progress out there.

The Predator, a Drone That Transformed Military Combat

The alliance between the Klingons and the Romulans is either running into some kind of trouble, or is not defined the way we usually define alliances. This gives us our first hint as to why we're out here, gentlebeings—unless Fleet was more open with one of you than it was with me. Suvuk shook his head slightly; Walsh rolled his eyes at the ceiling.

Any piece of data, any midnight thought, may give us the clue to figuring out what's going to happen. My staff has done some research involving recent Romulan intelligence reports; I'll be passing that data on to you for your study and comment. Anything, any idea you may come up with, don't hesitate to call me.

My intention is to keep this operation very free-form, at least until something happens. For something will happen. One does not waste a destroyer on empty space, or space one expects to stay empty. We are expected to force the Romulans' hand, as Captain Walsh would say. Jim looked with carefully concealed surprise at Suvuk, who had flashed a quick mild glance at Walsh. Is it just me? But, no, Vulcans don't make jokes.

Certainly this one wouldn't— "Yes, sir," Jim said. The map's field changed again, becoming more detailed. The long curved ellipsoid boundary between the two spaces swelled to dominate the cubic; stars in the field became few. I suggest that we spread ourselves out as thinly as we can—not so far as to be out of easy communication with one another, but far enough apart to cover as much territory as possible with any given pattern.

This way, any ship in need of assistance can have it within from a day to an hour, depending on what the situation is. But as the machine slid swiftly along gleaming passages, Benton saw that the private suite of the grand admiral was no small place. Through door after door he glimpsed tremendous activities. Occasionally they whizzed through open bays of desks where scraps of conversation could be overheard, while all about were annunciators flashing weird symbols incessantly.

Pegasus hit Pegasus blows up Cruiser Flotilla 36 moving in from lower port quarter Altair hit —". As that faded, the orderly cut across the back of a balcony overlooking a great hail. Far down in the pit Benton could see a huge swirling ball of vapor, glittering with pinpoints of varicolored lights cast upon it by unseen projectors. That would be the ultra-secret Battle Integrator — the marvelous moving solidograph that resolved six dimensions into four.

Stern-faced officers watched it intently, snapping orders into phones, and uniformed girl messengers dashed everywhere. Benton and Torrington were crouched over a curious device in the turret booth. It was a miniature version of the Battle Integrator, a series of transparent concentric spheres cunningly illuminated by fingers of light from a projector in its nucleus. Benton indicated a crawling pink dot. By the time we get to B you should have recovered from the acceleration shock and manned the thermoscope.

The target will be somewhere in the zone COTV. This curve shows its heat characteristics. The minute you pick it up, cut in the tracker and put on your alert light. Get it? They were looking at the big Battle Integrator whirling and sparkling in Action Hall, not a hundred yards from Bullard's quiet office. Six Vixens , and along come four maulers.

All right. The Scouts disintegrated two, but now there are two left and no Vixens. What's to stop 'em from coming right on in? There's nothing heavy enough this side of Mars, and that's five days off using everything. They stared silently at the telltale ball of mist.

High up toward its pole eight dull red marks were dying out.

Joan Johnson-Freese

The ships were gone, but the after-radiation lingered. Inside them and several degrees down two silvery blobs were crawling slowly. A pale thread of violet light throbbed in the fog, and on it the two blobs lay like pearls on a silken thread. The violet line was their computed trajectory. A pinkish streak of light appeared like a short-tailed comet out of the nowhere, slowed, brightened, and then condensed to a definite point of glittering light. Instantly the computers in distant rooms noted it, and with flying fingers punched its observed co-ordinates into their machines. A second later another violet thread appeared — the mysterious pink body's course.

It lacked little of intersecting that of the two maulers. He was the Operational Director of the cruiser force and knew. A loud-speaker began to blare. She was propelled there as the result of a mysterious accident. Believed to be damaged and only partly manned. When last seen katatrons were still in working condition, but there are no experienced officers on board, her captain and others have abandoned her — ". But you're going in the wrong direction. It's a Beltish system of direction.

We use Earth's orbital velocity as the standard of distance for an asteroid—the way you use a clock face as the standard of position for an airplane; or a globe of Earth for the standard of reference in a spaceship. If somebody comes up on it at a ninety-degree on the right, say, above it, that would be three o'clock high. Tells a guy where to look. Which way's up? The way you're facing or the way you're going? And are you in an acceleration couch lying down, or a couch-chair like ours?

But— well, you've got the 3-D Plan Position Indicator. It's f a globe. You use it like a globe of Earth for your reference. Paulsen pointed to the global PPI. The faint glow of orange grid reference lines made it look very much like a skeletonized globe of Earth. In the center of the globe was one green spark that represented their own ship. Any outside object, Stan knew, would be represented by a red spot within the globe; or if it were a planet or other sizable object, it would intrude as a large red ball.

The north-south axis of the globe was in line with the ship's axis; north the direction in which they were going, south the direction from which they were pushed. You use latitude—not many of them; about twenty, forty and sixty degrees of latitude. Then north and south is like in the scope here; north is the way you're going. East and west is a reference from where you're sitting—east is the right side of the scope from here. Then farside and nearside, meaning farside of the scope or near.

So if the ship you're after is—well, I don't know how to describe it except to say 'north forty farside east. So they're five months apart. Wouldn't take more than two weeks to reach it in this crate. But now, if you want to say where an asteroid is in the Belt, not relative to you in distance, but just where it is, you use the zodiac sign. For instance, Belt City's just entered Taurus; and A. Distance is in months; position is in zodiacal sign.

It's easy once you think about it. Makes sense. They're named like a deck of cards—ace, king, queen, jack, ten. The Belt's not evenly spaced around its orbit, you know. It sort of divides up into five sectors, with a fair amount of fairly empty space between. So you've got the sectors to contend with too. Think you can manage? She had been designed and built specifically to be Grand Fleet Headquarters, and nothing else. She bore no offensive armament, but since she had to protect the presiding geniuses of combat she had every possible defense.

Port Admiral Haynes had learned a bitter lesson during the expedition to Helmuth's base.

Space Warfare in the 21st Century: Arming the Heavens

Long before that relatively small fleet got there he was sick to the core, realizing that fifty thousand vessels simply could not be controlled or maneuvered as a group. If that base had been capable of an offensive or even of a real defense, or if Boskone could have put their fleets into that star-cluster in time, the Patrol would have been defeated ignominiously; and Haynes, wise old tactician that he was, knew it. Therefore, immediately after the return from that "triumphant" venture, he gave orders to design and to build, at whatever cost, a flagship capable of directing efficiently a million combat units.

The "tank" the minutely cubed model of the galaxy which is a necessary part of every pilot room had grown and grown as it became evident that it must be the prime agency in Grand Fleet Operations. Finally, in this last rebuilding, the tank was seven hundred feet in diameter and eighty feet thick in the middle"over seventeen million cubic feet of space in which more than two million tiny lights crawled hither and thither in helpless confusion.

For, after the technicians and designers had put that tank into actual service, they had discovered that it was useless. No available mind had been able either to perceive the situation as a whole or to identify with certainty any light or group of lights needing correction; and as for linking up any particular light with its individual, blanket-proof communicator in time to issue orders in space-combat! Kinnison looked at the tank, then around the full circle of the million-plug board encircling it. He observed the horde of operators, each one trying frantically to do something.

Next he shut his eyes, the better to perceive everything at once, and studied the problem for an hour. Helmuth had a nice set-up on multiplex controls, and Jalte had some ideas, too. If we add them to this we may have something. Ambers are the planets the reds took off from—connected, you see, by Ryerson string-lights. The white star is us, the Directrix. That violet cross 'way over there is Jalte's planet, our first objective. The pink comets are our free planets, their tails showing their intrinsic velocities.

Being so slow, they had to start long ago. The purple circle is the negasphere. It's on its way, too. You take that side, I'll take this. They were supposed to start from the edge of the twelfth sector. The idea was to make it a smooth, bowl-shaped sweep across the galaxy, converging upon the objective, but each of the system marshals apparently wants to run this war to suit himself.

Look at that guy there, he's beating the gun by nine thousand parsecs. Watch me pin his ears back! He pointed his Simplex at the red light which had so offendingly sprung into being. There was a whirring click and the number flashed above a board. An operator flicked a switch. Tell your marshal that one more such break will put him in irons. Land at once! GFO off. And with the passage of time came order out of chaos. The red lights formed a gigantically sweeping, curving wall; its almost imperceptible forward crawl representing an actual velocity of almost a hundred parsecs an hour.

Behind that wall blazed a sea of amber, threaded throughout with the brilliant filaments which were the Ryerson lights. Ahead of it lay a sparkling, almost solid blaze of green. Closer and closer the wall crept toward the bright white star. And in the "reducer"—the standard, ten-foot tank in the lower well—the entire spectacle was reproduced in miniature.

It was plainer there, clearer and much more readily seen: but it was so crowded that details were indistinguishable.


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Keep in mind that when Gray Lensman was written, computers were little more than electronic abacuses, there was no such thing as "computer graphics". The described tank was all analog, with physical lights for all the ships.

The Real Wars: US Military Is Preparing for a Space War

Westhause smiles. Nudging up in front, like a calf to its mother, is the tiniest spatial display tank I've ever seen. I've see cheap children's battle games with bigger tanks. I sneer at that toy. And they have more than one.

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For a thrill, in null grav, you can dive in and swim among the stars. If you don't mind standing Commander's Mast and doing a few weeks' extra duty. I watch the tank instead of trying to follow the ascensions, decimations, azimuths, and relative velocities and range rates the talker chirrups. The nearest enemy vessel, which has been tagging along slightly to relative nadir, has begun hauling ass, pushing four gravities, apparently intent on coming abreast of us at the same decimation.

His remark becomes clear when a new green blip materializes in the tank. A parr of little green arrows part from it and course toward the point where bogey Nine would've been had she not accelerated. The friendly blip winks out again. Little red arrows were racing toward it from the repositioned enemy. The two missile flights begin seeking targets. Briefly, they chase one another like puppies chasing their tails.

Then their dull brains realize that that isn't their mission. They fling apart, searching again. The greenies locate the bogey, surge toward her. The display tank flickers to a slight adjustment. It gives a skewed view, with the Climber at one boundary. The ship casts a thin cone of red shadow across the tank. A thin black pencil stroke lances down the heart of the red cone. We'd have to know what kind of ship she is to guess her distance from the intensity of her neutrino output here. The computer keeps humming.

Rose and Canzoneri push hard, though they seem unsure what the Commander wants. Every sensor strains to accumulate more data on the Leviathan. Wide-eyed, Carmon does as he's told. This is a big departure from procedure. It leaves us flying blind. There's no other way to bring all the information in a single accessible picture.

Rose and Canzoneri pound out silent rhythms on their keyboards. The tank begins to build us a composite of the Leviathan, first using the data from the identification files, then modifying from the current harvest. If reinforcements give us time, the portrayal will reveal every wound, every hull scratch, every potential blind spot. Floating red jewels appear where none ought to be, telling a tale none of us want to hear. We've been englobed.

The trans-solar show is a distraction. I glance at the tank. Just one red blip, moving away fast. There're no dots on the sphere's boundary, indicating known enemies beyond its scope. The display was a hologram about a meter square by half a meter thick and was programmed to show the positions of Sade, our planet, and a few other chunks of rock in the system. There were green and red dots to show the positions of our vessels and the Taurans.

While we were watching a small green dot popped out of the ship's dot and drifted away from it. A ghostly number 2 drifted beside it, and a key projected on the display's lower left-hand corner identified it as 2-Pursuit Drone.

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Other numbers in the key identified the Masaryk II, a planetary defense fighter and fourteen planetary defense drones. Those sixteen ships were not yet far enough away from one another to have separate dots. There were forty-one red and green dots scattered around the field; the key identified number 41 as Tauran Cruiser 2.

I wished our spy satellites had a finer sense of discrimination. But you can only cram so much into a machine the size of a grape. He was right; the only red lights were those that stood for the troop carriers. The cruiser showed up, and with it, three green dots. Our "coward," attacking the cruiser with only two drones.

Instead of going into collapsar insertion, he had skimmed around the collapsar field in a slingshot orbit.


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  • He had come out going nine-tenths of the speed of light; the drones were going 0. Our planet was about a thousand light-seconds from the collapsar, so the Tauran ship had only ten seconds to detect and stop both drones. And at that speed, it didn't matter whether you'd been hit by a nova-bomb or a spitball. The first drone disintegrated the cruiser, and the other one, 0. The fighter missed the planet by a couple of hundred kilometers and hurtled on into space, decelerating with the maximum twenty-five gees.

    He'd be back in a couple of months. Third, while space is essential to military capabilities, the government should seek to limit the militarisation of space, and finally, the US should promote the use of space as a sanctuary, in a similar analogy to the international cooperation for managing Antarctica. Irrespective of the strategic theme, all discussions conclude that space is the Achilles heel for military power.

    In chapter four, Johnson-Freese discusses options for military roles that can be performed in and with space to assure space security with a focus on the separate roles and potential technologies for the military to deter, defend, and defeat an adversary in space. The challenge for military commanders is that space is not a logical extension of the air domain.

    This requires strategists and capability developers to recognise the need to understand the differences in science, technology, and costs. The conduct of warfare in the orbital space domain will be challenged by the definition and ethics of military endstates involving any on-orbit military actions. This is especially true of those legacy effects, such as orbital space debris and disruption to critical public infrastructure, which may endure, potentially, for many generations after a conflict has ended.

    Whereas chapters one to four steps the reader through a logical process of understanding the outcomes for a space security strategy and deriving the necessary outputs, chapter five discusses the critical national stakeholders who are essential in putting space strategy into effect, and the support necessary to make it useful. The observation made is that the issue of space security has generated an industry for the pondering, pursuit, and procurement of new space applications by military, industry, aerospace think tanks, academia, and support research organisations.

    Thus, it is good to define a threat that can be used to justify the significant and long-term investments into space security. Chapter six is a discussion on the impact of the newest space actors and their behaviours and attitudes towards space. Space access is no longer considered to be exclusive to government-run organisations in space-faring nations. Technology miniaturisation and reduced launch costs have democratised space access to allow non-state actors.

    While space warfare might serve to achieve a short-term goal, it may be better to appreciate that the more prolonged effects of destabilising the space domain will be detrimental to all space users. A continuously growing number of space users want evermore space-derived services driven by ever-evolving technological improvements that allow more space missions to be conducted near each other. However, this uncontrolled approach by separate nations to individually access the common grounds of the Earth space orbital domain must logically converge at a point where the risks of accidents or deliberate action on orbit must be considered as a likely determinant for future space security policy, and not necessarily a space warfare policy.

    In conclusion, this book is well-referenced, and presented in a logical flow of clearly articulated thoughts, making it a useful study reference for strategic thinkers. Johnson-Freese, herself a noted specialist on the space domain, has consulted with subject matter experts from appropriate military and space industry organisations and think-tanks, and is supported by critical individuals typified by the international recognised experts such as Dr David Finkleman, who has served on numerous technical and scientific advisory and study boards for industry and the federal government and is a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

    He serves at the Air Power Development Centre in Canberra where he is involved in the analysis of potential risks and opportunities posed by technology change drivers and disruptions to future air and space power. His RAAF career has provided operational experiences in long-range maritime patrol, aircrew training, and weaponeering, and management experiences in international relations, project management in air and space systems acquisitions, space concepts development, and joint force capability integration.

    If you would like to contribute to From Balloons to Drones , then visit our submissions page here to find out how.